Full Text: Keynote speech by Xi at opening ceremony of 8th FOCAC ministerial conference

BEIJING - President Xi Jinping delivered a keynote speech via video link at the opening ceremony of the Eighth Ministerial Conference of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation on Monday.

Please see the following for the translation of the full text of the speech.

(Translation)

Uphold the Tradition of Always Standing Together

And Jointly Build a China-Africa Community

With a Shared Future in the New Era

Keynote Speech by H.E. Xi Jinping

President of the People's Republic of China

At the Opening Ceremony of the Eighth Ministerial Conference of

The Forum on China-Africa Cooperation

29 November 2021

Your Excellency President Macky Sall,

Distinguished Colleagues,

Dear Guests and Friends,

It is such a pleasure to attend the opening ceremony of the Eighth Ministerial Conference of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC). Let me first express sincere appreciation to President Sall and the government of Senegal for their excellent organization, and extend a warm welcome to the colleagues and guests attending the Conference.

This year marks the 65th anniversary of the start of diplomatic relations between China and African countries. Over the past 65 years, China and Africa have forged unbreakable fraternity in our struggle against imperialism and colonialism, and embarked on a distinct path of cooperation in our journey toward development and revitalization. Together, we have written a splendid chapter of mutual assistance amidst complex changes, and set a shining example for building a new type of international relations.

Dear Friends,

Why do China and Africa have such a close relationship and so deep a bond of friendship? The key lies in an everlasting spirit of China-Africa friendship and cooperation forged between the two sides, which features sincere friendship and equality, win-win for mutual benefit and common development, fairness and justice, and progress with the times and openness and inclusiveness. This truly captures the relations of China and Africa working together in good and hard times over the past decades, and provides a source of strength for the continuous growth of China-Africa friendly relations.

This year marks the 50th anniversary of the restoration of China's lawful seat in the United Nations. Here, let me express sincere appreciation to the many African friends who supported China back then. Let me also make it solemnly clear that China will never forget the profound friendship of African countries and will remain guided by the principle of sincerity, real results, amity and good faith and the principle of pursuing the greater good and shared interests. China will work together with African friends to promote and carry forward the spirit of China-Africa friendship and cooperation from generation to generation.

Dear Friends,

At the 2018 FOCAC Beijing Summit, I proposed that we build an even stronger China-Africa community with a shared future. The proposal was unanimously endorsed by African leaders. Over the past three years and more, China and Africa have worked together to fully implement the eight major initiatives and other outcomes of the Beijing Summit, and completed a large number of priority cooperation projects. China-Africa trade and China's investment in Africa have been on a steady rise. Almost all African members of FOCAC have joined the big family of Belt and Road cooperation. All these have injected strong impetus into the China-Africa comprehensive strategic and cooperative partnership.

A journey of a thousand miles begins with the first step. As we stand at the historic starting point of building a China-Africa community with a shared future in the new era, I wish to make the following four proposals:

First, fighting COVID-19 with solidarity. We need to put people and their lives first, be guided by science, support waiving intellectual property rights on COVID-19 vaccines, and truly ensure the accessibility and affordability of vaccines in Africa to bridge the immunization gap.

Second, deepening practical cooperation. We need to open up new prospects for China-Africa cooperation, expand trade and investment, share experience on poverty reduction, strengthen cooperation on digital economy, and promote entrepreneurship by young Africans and the development of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). At the UN General Assembly this year, I put forward the Global Development Initiative, which dovetails with the African Union's Agenda 2063 and the UN's 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. We welcome the active support and participation by African countries.

Third, promoting green development. In the face of climate change, which is a major challenge to all humanity, we need to advocate green and low-carbon development, actively promote solar, wind and other sources of renewable energy, work for effective implementation of the Paris Agreement on climate change and keep strengthening our capacity for sustainable development.

Fourth, upholding equity and justice. The world needs true multilateralism. Peace, development, equity, justice, democracy and freedom are common values of humanity and represent the abiding aspirations of both China and Africa. We both advocate a development path suited to our national conditions and are both committed to upholding the rights and interests of developing countries. We both oppose intervention in domestic affairs, racial discrimination and unilateral sanctions. We need to unequivocally stand for the just propositions of developing countries and translate our common aspirations and interests into joint actions.

Dear Friends,

In the run-up to this Conference, our two sides have jointly prepared the China-Africa Cooperation Vision 2035. Under the first three-year plan of the Vision, China will work closely with African countries to implement the following nine programs:

First, the medical and health program. To help the AU achieve its goal of vaccinating 60 percent of the African population by 2022, I announce that China will provide another one billion doses of vaccines to Africa, including 600 million doses as donation and 400 million doses to be provided through such means as joint production by Chinese companies and relevant African countries. In addition, China will undertake 10 medical and health projects for African countries, and send 1,500 medical personnel and public health experts to Africa.

Second, the poverty reduction and agricultural development program. China will undertake 10 poverty reduction and agricultural projects for Africa, and send 500 agricultural experts to Africa. China will set up a number of China-Africa joint centers for modern agrotechnology exchange, demonstration and training in China, encourage Chinese institutions and companies to build in Africa demonstration villages for China-Africa cooperation on agricultural development and poverty reduction, and support the Alliance of Chinese Companies in Africa for Corporate Social Responsibilities in launching the initiative of "100 Companies in 1,000 Villages".

Third, the trade promotion program. China will open "green lanes" for African agricultural exports to China, speed up the inspection and quarantine procedures, and further increase the scope of products enjoying zero-tariff treatment for the least developed countries (LDCs) having diplomatic relations with China, in a bid to reach 300 billion US dollars in total imports from Africa in the next three years. China will provide 10 billion US dollars of trade finance to support African export, and build in China a pioneering zone for in-depth China-Africa trade and economic cooperation and a China-Africa industrial park for Belt and Road cooperation. China will undertake 10 connectivity projects for Africa, form an expert group on economic cooperation with the secretariat of the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA), and give continued support to the development of the AfCFTA.

Fourth, the investment promotion program. China will encourage its businesses to invest no less than 10 billion US dollars in Africa in the next three years, and will establish a platform for China-Africa private investment promotion. China will undertake 10 industrialization and employment promotion projects for Africa, provide credit facilities of 10 billion US dollars to African financial institutions, support the development of African SMEs on a priority basis, and establish a China-Africa cross-border RMB center. China will exempt African LDCs from debt incurred in the form of interest-free Chinese government loans due by the end of 2021. China is ready to channel to African countries 10 billion US dollars from its share of the IMF's new allocation of Special Drawing Rights.

Fifth, the digital innovation program. China will undertake 10 digital economy projects for Africa, set up centers for China-Africa cooperation on satellite remote-sensing application, and support the development of China-Africa joint laboratories, partner institutes, and scientific and technological innovation cooperation bases. China will work with African countries to expand Silk Road e-commerce cooperation, hold online shopping festivals featuring quality African products and tourism e-commerce promotion activities, and launch a campaign to market 100 African stores and 1,000 African products on e-commerce platforms.

Sixth, the green development program. China will undertake 10 green development, environmental protection and climate action projects for Africa, support the development of the "Great Green Wall", and build in Africa centers of excellence on low-carbon development and climate change adaptation.

Seventh, the capacity building program. China will help build or upgrade 10 schools in Africa, and invite 10,000 high-level African professionals to seminars and workshops. We will implement "Future of Africa — a project for China-Africa cooperation on vocational education", and start an employment "through train" scheme for African students in China. China will continue to work with African countries to set up "Luban Workshops", and encourage Chinese companies in Africa to create at least 800,000 local jobs.

Eighth, the cultural and people-to-people exchange program. China will support making all African countries having diplomatic ties with China approved destinations for Chinese tourist groups. We will hold African film festivals in China and Chinese film festivals in Africa, as well as a China-Africa youth services forum, and a China-Africa women's forum.

Ninth, the peace and security program. China will undertake 10 peace and security projects for Africa, continue to deliver military assistance to the AU, support African countries' efforts to independently maintain regional security and fight terrorism, and conduct joint exercises and on-site training between Chinese and African peacekeeping troops and cooperation on small arms and light weapons control.

Dear Friends,

Senegal's first President Léopold Sédar Senghor once wrote, "Let us answer 'present' at the rebirth of the world." I am convinced that the concerted efforts of China and Africa will make this FOCAC Conference a full success, one that shall pool the mighty strength of the 2.7 billion Chinese and Africans and guide us toward a high-level China-Africa community with a shared future.

Thank you.

Full Text: Xi's speech at summit to mark 30 years of China-ASEAN dialogue

President Xi Jinping attends and chairs in Beijing via video link the summit commemorating the 30th anniversary of the dialogue relations between China and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations on Monday, Nov 22, 2021. [Photo/Xinhua]

BEIJING - President Xi Jinping on Monday delivered a speech via video link at the Special Summit to Commemorate the 30th Anniversary of China-ASEAN Dialogue Relations.

Please see the following for the translation of the full text of the speech. 

(Translation)

For a Shared Future and Our Common Home

Speech by H.E. Xi Jinping

President of the People's Republic of China

At the Special Summit to Commemorate

The 30th Anniversary of China-ASEAN Dialogue Relations

22 November 2021

Your Majesty Sultan Hassanal of Brunei Darussalam,

Dear Colleagues,

It gives me great pleasure to meet you virtually to jointly celebrate the 30th anniversary of China-ASEAN dialogue relations, to review what we have accomplished together, summarize past experience and draw up a blueprint for the future.

China-ASEAN dialogue relations have gone through an extraordinary journey over the past three decades. These 30 years have witnessed intensive development of economic globalization and profound changes in the international landscape. These 30 years have also seen China and ASEAN seizing opportunities of the times and achieving leapfrog development in our relations. We have cast away the shadow of the Cold War and jointly upheld stability in our region. We have spearheaded economic integration in East Asia, promoted common development and prosperity, and delivered better lives to the over two billion people. We have explored a bright path of good-neighborliness and win-win cooperation, taken strides toward building a closer community with a shared future and made important contribution to the cause of human progress.

Today, we jointly announce the establishment of a China-ASEAN Comprehensive Strategic Partnership. This is a new milestone in the history of our relations and will inject new impetus into peace, stability, prosperity and development of our region and the world.

Colleagues,

The gains in China-ASEAN cooperation over the past 30 years are attributable to our unique geographical proximity and cultural affinity and, more importantly, to the fact that we have actively embraced the development trend of our times and made the right historic choice.

First, we have respected each other and acted by the basic norms of international relations. Oriental culture believes in "not doing to others what we do not desire ourselves". Equality and harmonious coexistence are our common pursuit. We were the first to advocate the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence and the Bandung Spirit. China was the first among ASEAN's dialogue partners to join the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia. The two sides have accommodated each other's major concerns, respected each other's development paths, increased understanding and trust through sincere communication, and properly handled disagreements and problems by seeking common ground while shelving differences, thus jointly upholding and promoting Asian values.

Second, we have cooperated for win-win results and followed a path of peaceful development. China and ASEAN countries have similar historical experiences and share the same goal of securing stability for our countries and happiness for our people. We have firmly upheld regional peace and stability, stayed focused on development, taken the lead in establishing free trade areas, promoted high-quality Belt and Road cooperation, and jointly concluded and signed the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP), thus promoting integrated development of the region and well-being of our people.

Third, we have looked out for each other and honored the principle of amity, sincerity, mutual benefit and inclusiveness. China and ASEAN are neighbors, and mutual assistance is our shared tradition. Both Chinese and Bruneian proverbs have expressions of "sharing bliss and misfortune together". Our exchanges are as frequent as those between relatives. We value friendship and credibility. We rejoice together in good times, and help each other out in hard times. We have stood with each other through the Asian financial crisis, international financial crisis, COVID-19 and other challenges, thus forging a stronger sense of being a community with a shared future.

Fourth, we have upheld inclusiveness and mutual learning and jointly contributed to open regionalism. China and ASEAN are home to diverse ethnicities, cultures and religions. Diversity and inclusiveness are in our DNA. Drawing wisdom from East Asian civilization, we have steered regional economic integration with an open mind, advanced ASEAN-led regional cooperation through equal-footed consultation, and forged friendships that are open, not exclusionary, with an inclusive attitude, thus honoring the principle of extensive consultation, joint contribution and shared benefits.

The valuable experience we have gained over the past 30 years is the shared asset of China and ASEAN. It lays the foundation and provides guidelines for developing our Comprehensive Strategic Partnership. We need to doubly cherish the experience, uphold it over the long run, and keep enriching and expanding it as we go forward.

Colleagues,

A Chinese proverb has it that "Distance tests a horse's strength, and time reveals a person's integrity". China was, is, and will always be ASEAN's good neighbor, good friend and good partner. I wish to reaffirm that China will unswervingly take ASEAN as a high priority in its neighborhood diplomacy, unswervingly support ASEAN unity and ASEAN Community building, unswervingly support ASEAN centrality in the regional architecture, and unswervingly support ASEAN in playing a bigger role in regional and international affairs.

Not long ago, the Communist Party of China convened the Sixth Plenary Session of its 19th Central Committee and comprehensively reviewed the major achievements and historical experience of the Party over the past century. Full of confidence, the Chinese people are marching forward on the new journey to build China into a modern socialist country in all respects. China's development will provide more opportunities for and inject strong impetus into the region and the wider world. China stands ready to work with ASEAN to grasp the overriding trend, remove interference, share opportunities and promote shared prosperity. We will implement in earnest our Comprehensive Strategic Partnership, and make new strides toward building a closer China-ASEAN community with a shared future.

Regarding the future relations between China and ASEAN, I wish to make the following five proposals:

First, we can build a peaceful home together. Without peace, nothing would be possible. Maintaining peace is our greatest common interest and the most cherished aspiration of people of all countries. We need to serve as the builders and guardians of peace in the region. We need to pursue dialogue instead of confrontation, build partnerships instead of alliances, and make concerted efforts to address the various negative factors that might threaten or undermine peace. We need to practice true multilateralism and stick to the principle that international and regional affairs be handled through discussion among us all. China firmly opposes hegemonism and power politics. China pursues long-term, friendly coexistence with neighboring countries, and is part of the common efforts for durable peace in the region. China will never seek hegemony, still less bully smaller countries. China supports ASEAN's efforts to build a nuclear weapon-free zone, and is prepared to sign the Protocol to the Treaty on the Southeast Asia Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone as early as possible.

Second, we can build a safe and secure home together. The COVID-19 pandemic has once again proved that no place on Earth is an insulated island enjoying absolute security, and only universal security brings genuine security. China is ready to work with ASEAN countries to jointly build a "health shield" for the region. Under this initiative, China is ready to donate an additional 150 million doses of COVID vaccines to ASEAN countries to support higher vaccination rates in countries in the region. China will contribute an additional US$5 million to the COVID-19 ASEAN Response Fund, step up vaccine joint production and technology transfer, and collaborate on research and development of essential medicines, so as to help ASEAN increase self-reliance. China will support ASEAN in strengthening primary-level public health systems and cultivating human capital for ASEAN to build stronger capacity in response to major public health emergencies. Apart from COVID, our region faces various types of traditional and non-traditional security challenges. In addressing these challenges, it is important to pursue common, comprehensive, cooperative and sustainable security, and deepen cooperation in areas such as defense, counter-terrorism, joint maritime search, rescue and exercise, countering transnational crime, and disaster management. Joint efforts are needed to safeguard stability in the South China Sea and make it a sea of peace, friendship and cooperation.

Third, we can build a prosperous home together. I recently put forth the Global Development Initiative to call for collective efforts of the international community to meet challenges, drive global economic recovery and accelerate implementation of the UN's 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. This initiative has much to contribute to ASEAN countries' efforts to meet their development needs, and can be mutually reinforcing with ASEAN Community Vision 2025. China is ready to provide ASEAN with another US$1.5 billion of development assistance in the next three years to support ASEAN countries' fight against COVID-19 and economic recovery. China is ready to engage in international development cooperation with ASEAN and launch negotiations on an agreement in this area. We support establishment of a China-ASEAN Knowledge Network for Development. China is also ready to strengthen exchange and cooperation with ASEAN on poverty reduction to promote balanced and inclusive development.

We need to fully harness the role of the RCEP, begin work toward a new round of upgrade of the China-ASEAN Free Trade Area at an early date, and enhance the level of trade and investment liberalization and facilitation. We need to expand cooperation in new areas like digital and green economy and build joint demonstration zones for economic innovative development. China has a vast domestic market that will always be open to ASEAN countries. China is ready to import more quality products from ASEAN countries, including buying up to US$150 billion worth of agricultural products from ASEAN in the next five years. We seek high-quality Belt and Road cooperation with ASEAN and cooperation between the Belt and Road Initiative and the ASEAN Outlook on the Indo-Pacific. China will continue to develop demonstration zones for high-quality Belt and Road international industrial capacity cooperation, and welcomes ASEAN countries' participation in the New International Land-Sea Trade Corridor. China will launch the China-ASEAN Science, Technology and Innovation Enhancing Program, and will provide 1,000 items of advanced and applicable technology to ASEAN and support a program for 300 young scientists from ASEAN to come to China for exchanges in the next five years. We propose a China-ASEAN Digital Governance Dialogue to deepen innovative application of digital technology.

Fourth, we can build a beautiful home together. Harmony with Nature is the basis for humanity's sustained development. China is ready to open a dialogue with ASEAN on climate response, increase policy communication and experience sharing, and synergize our plans for sustainable development. We may jointly promote a regional energy transition, discuss establishment of a China-ASEAN clean energy cooperation center, and enhance technology sharing in renewable energies. We may intensify cooperation on green finance and investment to support regional low-carbon and sustainable development. China is ready to launch the Action Plan on China-ASEAN Green Agriculture to make our countries' agricultural sector more resilient and sustainable. We may also energize the China-ASEAN Countries Joint Research and Development Center of Marine Science and Technology, build the Partnership on Blue Economy, and promote marine sustainable development.

Fifth, we can build an amicable home together. We need to advocate peace, development, equity, justice, democracy and freedom, which are common values of humanity, deepen exchanges and mutual learning between civilizations, and fully capitalize on our region's unique strength of cultural diversity. We need to actively consider orderly resumption of flow of people post the COVID-19 pandemic and continue to promote exchanges in areas such as culture, tourism, think tanks, media and women to build better understanding, bring hearts closer together and form one big family between our peoples. The young people represent the future of China and ASEAN. China will enhance cooperation with ASEAN in vocational education and mutual recognition of diplomas, increase the number of recipients of China-ASEAN Young Leaders Scholarship, and organize events like youth camps. Next year, China will host the Beijing Winter Olympics and the Hangzhou Asian Games, which offer good opportunities for deepening sports exchanges and cooperation between China and ASEAN countries.

Colleagues,

As an ancient Chinese statesman observed, "Designs for justice prevail, and acts for people's benefit succeed." Let us keep close to our hearts people's aspiration for a better life, and put on our shoulders the mission of our times to safeguard peace and promote development. Let us work hand in hand to build on what has been achieved and work toward a closer China-ASEAN community with a shared future, and make our region and the world even more prosperous and beautiful.

Full Text: Xi's explanation of resolution on major achievements and historical experience of CPC over past century

Explanation of the Resolution of the Central Committee of the

Communist Party of China on the Major Achievements and Historical

Experience of the Party over the Past Century

Xi Jinping

On behalf of the Political Bureau of the 19th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (CPC), I will now brief you on the Resolution of the CPC Central Committee on the Major Achievements and Historical Experience of the Party over the Past Century and related issues.

I. Considerations on the Agenda of the Sixth Plenary Session of the 19th CPC Central Committee

Our Party has always attached great importance to reviewing its historical experience. As early as in the Yan'an period, Comrade Mao Zedong pointed out, "We will not be able to achieve greater success unless we have a clear understanding of our history and of the roads we have traveled."

In 1945, at the critical juncture for securing final victory in the War of Resistance against Japanese Aggression, the Sixth CPC Central Committee convened its seventh plenary session and adopted the Resolution on Certain Questions in the History of Our Party. The resolution reviewed the history of the Party and the experience it had gained and lessons it had learned since its founding in 1921, especially those in the period between the fourth plenary session of the Sixth Central Committee in January 1931 and the Zunyi Meeting in January 1935. It drew conclusions on major historical issues of the Party, leading to a broad consensus among all Party members, particularly high-ranking officials, on fundamental questions pertaining to the Chinese revolution. It served to strengthen the solidarity of the Party, paved the way for the convocation of the Seventh CPC National Congress, and helped advance the Chinese revolution significantly.

When our country entered a new period marked by the launch of reform and opening up, Comrade Deng Xiaoping noted, "The experience of successes is invaluable, and so are the lessons learned from mistakes and setbacks. Principles and policies formulated on the basis of the experience gained and lessons learned will unify all Party members in thinking. The unity so formed is most reliable."

In 1981, at its sixth plenary session, the 11th Party Central Committee adopted the Resolution on Certain Questions in the History of Our Party since the Founding of the People's Republic of China. The resolution reviewed the Party's history in the period before the founding of the People's Republic and summarized the experience it had gained in the course of socialist revolution and construction.

The resolution gave assessments of certain major events and important figures, particularly a correct appraisal of Comrade Mao Zedong and Mao Zedong Thought. It drew a clear distinction between right and wrong and corrected the erroneous "Leftist" and Rightist viewpoints existing at the time. Through the resolution, the Party came to a clear consensus and was more united than ever in support of a forward-looking approach. All this provided a strong impetus to the Party's endeavors in reform, opening up, and socialist modernization.

Seventy-six years have passed since the adoption of the Party's first resolution on historical issues, and 40 years since the second. The past four decades have witnessed tremendous progress in the cause of the Party and the country and tremendous advances for the Party in theoretical and practical terms.

We have now arrived at a new historic milestone. As we look back and set our sights on the future, we have both an objective need and the subjective conditions for a full review of our Party's major achievements and historical experience over the past century, especially those in the 40-plus years of reform and opening up.

The Central Committee considers it important in both a practical and historical sense to have a comprehensive review of the major achievements and historical experience of the Party over the past century as we celebrate its centenary and the fulfillment of the First Centenary Goal of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects and move on toward the Second Centenary Goal of building China into a great modern socialist country in all respects. This review will help build a broader consensus and stronger unity in will and action among all members and rally and lead Chinese people of all ethnic groups in achieving new and great success in building socialism with Chinese characteristics in the new era.

The Central Committee understands that the Party has gone through an extraordinary journey over the past century. The great endeavors of the Party span a long period of time, cover a wide range of fields, and involve many issues that merit our careful study. As a general requirement, we need to review our history and understand the underlying dynamics of its development so as to prepare for the future with greater confidence.

To this end, we need to relive the glories of the Party and appreciate how the Party has rallied and led the Chinese people in making magnificent achievements. We need to take stock of the invaluable experience the Party has gained in carrying out revolution, construction, and reform, and summarize the Party's theories and practices that have proved successful in advancing the cause of the Party and the country since the 18th CPC National Congress.

To be more specific, we need to revisit the Party's century-long history of leading the people in carrying out revolution, construction, and reform. We need to review the Party's great historical course of achieving one victory after another and the historic accomplishments the Party has achieved in the interests of the country and the nation.

We need to revisit the Party's century-long history in which the Party has advanced Marxism in the Chinese context by adapting the basic tenets of Marxism to China's realities and fine traditional culture, and we need to gain a deeper understanding of the Party's innovative theories for the new era.

We need to revisit the Party's century-long history in which the Party has maintained unity and upheld the Central Committee's authority and its centralized, unified leadership. We need to appreciate the significance of enhancing the Party's political development, which is a distinctive feature and political strength of a Marxist party such as ours.

We need to revisit the Party's century-long journey in pursuit of happiness for the Chinese people and rejuvenation for the Chinese nation. We must always bear in mind that the Party and the people are inextricably connected and rise and fall together. It is only with such understanding that we Party members can better devote ourselves to the benefit of the people and rely on them in our endeavor for greater accomplishments.

We need to revisit the Party's century-long journey in which it has grown stronger through self-improvement and self-reform. We must never falter in exercising full and rigorous self-governance of the Party and must see this as a mission that is forever ongoing so as to make sure that the Party always remains a powerful leadership core in the endeavor to uphold and develop socialism with Chinese characteristics in the new era.

We need to fully appreciate the laws and prevailing trends of history, seize the historical initiative in the cause of the Party and the country throughout our new journey in the new era, and galvanize even greater courage and strength for keeping to our set goals and striding ahead with pride and confidence.

The Central Committee considers it essential to follow the methodology of dialectical and historical materialism in the review of the Party's major achievements and historical experience over the past century. We need to look at the Party's history from a concrete, objective, and holistic perspective while recognizing that it is interconnected and evolving.

We need to maintain a rational outlook on Party history and see history from a broader perspective so as to develop an accurate understanding of the underlying trends and defining features of the CPC's history of evolution.

We need to properly address the mistakes and setbacks that have occurred on the Party's path forward. We should draw experience from our successes and learn lessons from our mistakes so as to score new victories.

We need to do better at setting things straight, taking a clear-cut stance against historical nihilism, strengthening ideological guidance and theoretical analysis, and clearing up confusion and misunderstandings over certain major questions in the Party's history.

The Central Committee has made it clear that the following are the top priorities in drafting the resolution to be adopted at this session:

1. The resolution must focus on the Party's major achievements and historical experience over the past century.

Our Party has already produced two resolutions on historical issues. These settled controversies on major issues in Party history in the period from its founding to the early stage of reform and opening up, and their basic points and conclusions remain valid.

Since reform and opening up began, the cause of the Party and the country has generally speaking made smooth progress in the right direction with achievements that have earned worldwide recognition, despite certain problems that have occurred in the Party's work. In view of this, the resolution to be adopted at this session should focus on a review of the Party's major achievements and historical experience over the past century. This will help pool our wisdom, strengthen our unity, and boost our confidence and morale.

2. The resolution must highlight the new era of socialism with Chinese characteristics.

This resolution places emphasis on the new era, mainly reviewing the historic achievements and the historic shifts in the cause of the Party and the country, and the latest experience that the Party has gained during this period. This is because the previous two resolutions on historical issues were devoted to Party history during the new-democratic revolution period, the period of socialist revolution and construction, and the period between the third plenary session of the 11th Central Committee in 1978 and its sixth plenary session in 1981.

As for the achievements and experience from the period marked by reform, opening up, and socialist modernization, the Central Committee has already conducted earnest reviews on the occasions of the 20th and 30th anniversary celebrations of the third plenary session of the 11th CPC Central Committee. I also gave a systematic analysis of the achievements and experience from this period in my address at a gathering marking the 40th anniversary of reform and opening up.

Therefore, the resolution before us needs to focus on the new era of socialism with Chinese characteristics along with a brief summary of Party history prior to the 18th National Congress based on existing reviews and conclusions. This will help further fortify confidence among all Party members, focus on our current endeavors, and enable us to forge ahead on the new journey with greater morale and make still greater contributions in the new era.

3. The resolution's appraisal of major events, significant meetings, and important figures must be consistent with the Party Central Committee's existing conclusions.

The previous two resolutions, along with the Party's long list of important literature, document the major events, meetings, and figures in Party history prior to its 18th National Congress, and contain well-considered conclusions on historical issues. These points and conclusions are to be upheld in the new resolution.

Since the 18th National Congress, I have spoken about Party history and the Party's conclusions on historical issues on a number of important occasions, including events marking the 95th anniversary of the founding of the Party, the 90th anniversary of the founding of the People's Liberation Army, the 70th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China, and the Party's centenary in particular. These statements represent an updated understanding on the part of the Central Committee of the Party's century-long history. This updated understanding needs to be reflected in the new resolution.

II.The Drafting Process

In March of this year, the Political Bureau decided that the sixth plenary session of the 19th Party Central Committee would focus on a comprehensive review of the Party's major achievements and historical experience in its century-long history.

To this end, a working group was established to draft the document under the auspices of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau. I am chief of this group, and my colleagues Wang Huning and Zhao Leji serve as its deputy chiefs. The group's membership is composed of other Party and state leaders, as well as heads of relevant central departments and localities.

On April 1, the Central Committee issued a Circular on Soliciting Opinions on the Agenda of the Sixth Plenary Session of the 19th CPC Central Committee of Focusing on a Full and Systematic Review of the Major Achievements and Historical Experience of the Party, in order to seek comments and suggestions from Party members and non-Party figures within an appropriate scope.

From their feedback, we can see unanimous agreement among all consulted localities, departments, and sectors that the decision of the 19th CPC Central Committee to focus its sixth plenary session on a comprehensive review of the Party's major achievements and historical experience over the past century is a well-considered decision of historic and strategic significance.

They believe the decision reflects the Party's firm resolve to stay true to its original aspiration and founding mission and remain vibrant as ever. It demonstrates the Party's keen understanding of the general trends of history, its strong sense of mission and responsibility, and its commitment to always taking the initiative in advancing the cause of the Party and the country. It also embodies the Party's broad and farsighted vision, its willingness to learn from history, and its commitment to remaining firmly grounded while setting its sights on the future.

They expressed their unanimous endorsement of the Central Committee's decision to focus the session on a review of the Party's major achievements and historical experience over the past century. They have also come up with many constructive comments and suggestions on what issues should be covered in the resolution.

They all agree that the Party has united and led the Chinese people in a continued endeavor to carry out revolution, construction, and reform during all periods of its century-long history; that the Party and the people have created miracles which will go down in the annals of the Chinese nation, world socialism, and human society; that the Party and the people have fundamentally changed the course of the Chinese nation's history in modern times and written a brilliant chapter in the history of world socialism, adding new dimensions to Marxism; that the Party and the people have scored indelible achievements toward national rejuvenation and made significant contributions to human progress; and that the Party and the people have gained a wealth of invaluable experience on this great journey. All of these merit a systematic review.

The localities, departments, and sectors involved in the consultation suggest that the review of the Party's major achievements and historical experience over the past century must focus on the new era and on the historic achievements and the historic shifts in the cause of the Party and the country, and the latest experience that the Party has gained during this period.

Under the planning of the Central Committee, the drafting group first carefully studied the Party's major historical documents. Following a thorough review of all major issues in the Party's history and based on comments and suggestions from the localities, departments, and sectors consulted, the group then began drafting the resolution.

In accordance with a decision made at a meeting of the Political Bureau, the text of the draft resolution was issued on September 6 to select Party members, including retired senior Party officials, for consultation. We also sought the opinions from leaders of other political parties and the All-China Federation of Industry and Commerce and prominent figures without party affiliation.

The feedback we have received indicates full endorsement by the consulted localities, departments, and sectors of the text of the draft resolution and its general framework and main content. They all agree that the most salient feature of the document is its focus on facts and its respect for history.

They also agree that the document highlights the Party's commitment to its original aspiration and founding mission in all its endeavors over the past century. It is a facts-based document and its descriptions and appraisals of major events, meetings, and figures are consistent with the descriptions and conclusions in the Party's existing historical documents. It also demonstrates the Party Central Committee's updated understanding of Party history in the period after the Party's 18th National Congress.

Under the sub-heading, "Historical Significance of the Party's Endeavors over the Past Century," the document provides a comprehensive, in-depth, and systematic summary of the Party's historic contributions to China and humanity.

Under the sub-heading, "Historical Experience of the Party's Endeavors over the Past Century," the document summarizes the Party's historical experience and also highlights its significance for guiding ongoing and future endeavors.

All consulted localities, departments, and sectors agree that this resolution is a political declaration of the Chinese communists' adherence to their original aspiration and founding mission and their commitment to upholding and developing socialism with Chinese characteristics in the new era. It is a guideline for the Party to create a brighter future and achieve national rejuvenation by learning from history.

They also agree that the resolution is imbued with the same spirit as the two previous resolutions on historical issues while also reflecting the spirit of the times. It will inspire the whole Party to strive for greater achievements on the journey ahead.

Over the course of soliciting opinions, we received many valuable comments and suggestions from the localities, departments, and sectors consulted. The drafting group analyzed these opinions and suggestions individually and incorporated as many of them as possible. Following multiple discussions and careful consideration, a total of 547 revisions were made to the preliminary draft. The revised draft therefore fully reflects the input of those consulted.

During the drafting process, the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau met three times and the Political Bureau twice for the purpose of discussing and finalizing the draft. The current draft for your consideration is a product of these meetings.

III. The General Framework and Main Content of the Document

In addition to a preamble and a conclusion, the document has seven sections.

1. A Great Victory in the New-Democratic Revolution

This section outlines the major tasks of the Party during the new-democratic revolution period, namely opposing imperialism, feudalism, and bureaucrat-capitalism, and working for the nation's independence and the people's liberation, so as to create the fundamental social conditions necessary for realizing national rejuvenation.

This section analyzes the historical background of the founding of the Party, and highlights the revolutionary struggle waged by the people under the Party's leadership as well as the great accomplishments they made in the early days of the Party and during the periods of the Great Revolution, the Agrarian Revolutionary War, the War of Resistance against Japanese Aggression, and the War of Liberation. It also highlights the Party's major achievements, such as establishing Mao Zedong Thought, and initiating and advancing the great project of Party building.

This section emphasizes that the founding of the People's Republic of China, national independence, and the people's liberation represented China's great transformation from a millennia-old feudal autocracy to a people's democracy. With these accomplishments made through tenacious struggle, the Communist Party of China and the Chinese people showed the world that the Chinese people had stood up and the time in which the Chinese nation could be bullied and abused by others was gone and would never return. This marked the beginning of a new epoch in China's development.

2. Socialist Revolution and Construction

This section specifies the Party's major tasks during this period, which were to realize the transformation from new democracy to socialism, carry out socialist revolution, promote socialist construction, and lay down the fundamental political conditions and the institutional foundations necessary for national rejuvenation.

It reviews the Party's great achievements during the period following the founding of the People's Republic of China, in which the Party led the people in surmounting many tough challenges to consolidate the newly-established state power, completing the process of socialist transformation, establishing the socialist system, launching large-scale socialist construction on all fronts, and breaking new ground in foreign affairs.

It recaps the efforts of the Party to build up its capacity as the governing party, and summarizes preliminary experience gained in this regard. It gives a rational appraisal of Mao Zedong Thought based on a summary of the creative theories put forward by the Party during this period.

The section also highlights the great achievements the Chinese people made under the Party's leadership, which brought about a great transformation from a poor and backward Eastern country with a large population to a socialist country. With these accomplishments made through tenacious struggle, the Communist Party of China and the Chinese people showed the world that the Chinese people were not only capable of dismantling the old world, but also of building a new one, that only socialism could save China, and that only socialism could develop China.

3. Reform, Opening up, and Socialist Modernization

This section recounts the major tasks of the Party during this period, which were to continue exploring the right path for building socialism in China, unleash and develop the productive forces, lift the people out of poverty and help them become prosperous in the shortest time possible, and fuel the push toward national rejuvenation by providing new, dynamic institutional guarantees as well as the material conditions for rapid development.

This section highlights the great significance of the third plenary session of the 11th CPC Central Committee, and documents the historic contributions made by the Chinese communists with Deng Xiaoping, Jiang Zemin, and Hu Jintao as their chief representatives. It reviews the spectacular progress and resounding success the Party made in this period in leading the people in setting things right in all sectors, developing the theory of socialism with Chinese characteristics, advancing reform, opening up, and socialist modernization, effectively responding to the many risks and trials confronting China's overall reform, development, and stability, promoting national reunification, safeguarding world peace and pursuing common development, and launching and advancing the great new project of Party building.

This section commends the great achievements scored by the Party and the people during this period, which made possible the Chinese nation's tremendous advance from standing up to becoming prosperous. With these accomplishments made through tenacious struggle, the Communist Party of China and the Chinese people showed the world that reform and opening up was a crucial move in making China what it is today, that socialism with Chinese characteristics is the correct road that has led the country toward development and prosperity, and that China has caught up with the times in great strides.

4. A New Era of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics

This section outlines the major tasks of the Party during this period as accomplishing the First Centenary Goal of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects, launching a new journey to realize the Second Centenary Goal of turning China into a great modern socialist country in all respects, and continuing to advance toward the ultimate goal of national rejuvenation.

This section elaborates on the new era of socialism with Chinese characteristics, which represents a new historical phase in China's development. It reviews the achievements the Party has made in theoretical innovation since its 18th National Congress, and thoroughly analyzes the conditions, risks, and challenges faced by the Party in the new era.

With a focus on the original ideas, transformative practices, new breakthroughs, and landmark accomplishments of the past nine years, the section highlights the great achievements and historic shifts in the cause of the Party and the country in the new era in the following 13 areas:

--upholding the Party's overall leadership;

--exercising full and rigorous self-governance;

--pursuing economic development;

--deepening reform and opening up;

--advancing political work;

--comprehensively advancing law-based governance;

--driving cultural advancement;

--promoting social advancement;

--spurring ecological advancement;

--strengthening national defense and the armed forces;

--safeguarding national security;

--upholding the One Country, Two Systems policy and promoting national reunification; and

--bolstering the diplomatic front.

This section emphasizes that the great achievements the people have made under the leadership of the Party during this period provide better institutional conditions, stronger material foundations, and a source of inspiration for realizing national rejuvenation. With these accomplishments made through tenacious struggle, the Communist Party of China and the Chinese people have shown the world that the Chinese nation has achieved the tremendous transformation from standing up and becoming prosperous to growing strong.

5. The Historical Significance of the Party's Endeavors over the Past Century

Based on a thorough review of the Party's major achievements over the past century, this section highlights the historical significance of the Party's endeavors from a broader perspective in the following five respects:

--fundamentally transforming the future of the Chinese people;

--opening up the right path for achieving rejuvenation of the Chinese nation;

--demonstrating the strong vitality of Marxism;

--producing a profound influence on the course of world history; and

--making the CPC a forerunner of the times.

It spells out the CPC's historic contributions to the Chinese people, the Chinese nation, Marxism, the cause of human progress, and the development of Marxist political parties.

This five-point summary is rooted in China's experience, but represents a vision for the future of humanity. It reflects the close bond between the CPC and the Chinese people and nation, and the connections between the CPC and Marxism, world socialism, and the development of human society. It also embodies the historical, theoretical, and practical logic of the Party's endeavors over its century-long history.

6. The Historical Experience of the Party's Endeavors over the Past Century

The historical experience of the Party is of fundamental and far-reaching guiding significance. This section summarizes this experience in 10 aspects:

--upholding the Party's leadership;

--putting the people first;

--advancing theoretical innovation;

--staying independent;

--following the Chinese path;

--maintaining a global vision;

--breaking new ground;

--standing up for ourselves;

--promoting the united front; and

--remaining committed to self-reform.

These 10 points form a systemic, interconnected, and indivisible whole. They are critical to the continued success of the Party and the people. They are the source of the Party's inviolable strength, and are the very reason why the Party has always been able to seize the historical initiative. They are essential for the Party to preserve its advanced nature and integrity and always stand at the forefront of the times.

This section reiterates that the 10 points represent valuable practical experience the Party has gained on its century-long journey and they are intellectual treasures created through the joint efforts of the Party and the people. All of us must cherish them, uphold them over the long term, and continue to enrich and develop them in practice in the new era.

7. The Communist Party of China in the New Era

This section focuses on the Second Centenary Goal of building China into a great modern socialist country in all respects. It calls on all Party members to make unremitting efforts to advance the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation with the determination to never let up until we reach our ultimate goals and the attitude that the last leg of the journey marks the halfway point only.

This section stresses the importance of adhering to the basic theory, guideline, and policy of the Party, and of grounding our work in this new stage of development, applying the new development philosophy, fostering a new pattern of development, and pursuing high-quality development. It calls for coordinated nationwide efforts to make our people prosperous, our nation strong, and our country beautiful.

This section reiterates the need to forever maintain the Party's close ties with the people and the need to better realize, safeguard, and advance the fundamental interests of the overwhelming majority of the people. It reminds us that one may thrive in adversity and perish in laxity, requires us to see things from a long-term, strategic perspective, and always remain mindful of potential dangers, and inspires us to continue advancing the great new project of Party building in the new era. It stresses that we must cultivate the people who will carry on the cause of the Party from generation to generation.

It calls on the whole Party, the military, and Chinese people of all ethnic groups to remember the glories and hardships of yesterday, rise to the mission of today, and live up to the great dream of tomorrow. It also calls on us to learn from history, work hard, forge ahead for a better future, and make tireless efforts to realize the Second Centenary Goal and the Chinese Dream of national rejuvenation.

Comrades,

The key task of the present session is to review and adopt the resolution. I hope that in doing so you will act in accordance with the requirements of the Central Committee, and adopt a holistic perspective on the past, the present, and the future of our Party.

I also hope you will carry out in-depth discussions on the draft resolution and come up with constructive ideas and suggestions based on your collective wisdom.

Let us work together to make this session a great success and produce a well-revised version of the resolution.

Full Text: Remarks by Xi at 28th APEC Economic Leaders' Meeting

President Xi Jinping on Friday addressed the 28th Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Economic Leaders' Meeting via video link.

The following is the translation of the full text of the speech.

Opening a New Chapter Together

For Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation

Remarks by H.E. Xi Jinping

President of the People's Republic of China

At the 28th APEC Economic Leaders' Meeting

12 November 2021

The Right Honorable Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern,

Dear Colleagues,

It is a great pleasure to meet you online. First of all, let me thank Prime Minister Ardern and the New Zealand government for their hard work in putting this meeting together. This session has chosen its theme to be "Recovering from COVID-19 to Build Prosperity for All Our People and Future Generations", which is of great significance.

This year marks the 30th anniversary of China's joining of APEC. It has been three decades of deepening reform and opening-up for China, and of broadening economic cooperation across the Asia-Pacific. Indeed, the Asia-Pacific region has become the most dynamic and promising economic powerhouse globally, staying at the forefront of world economic development, and making its positive contribution to global growth and to the well-being of people in the region.

Last year, building on the progress toward the Bogor Goals, we adopted the Putrajaya Vision 2040, reaffirming our original aspiration of bettering the lives of our people and envisioning an open, dynamic, resilient and peaceful Asia-Pacific community. This year, we have jointly formulated its implementation plan. We shall keep up our good work to put the Vision into action, and endeavor to build an Asia-Pacific community with a shared future featuring openness and inclusiveness, innovation-driven growth, greater connectivity, and mutually beneficial cooperation. To that end, I propose we focus our efforts on the following directions.

First, advance anti-COVID cooperation and promote economic recovery. As we meet, the pandemic continues to pose a grave challenge and global economic recovery remains fragile and difficult. To defeat the pandemic and restore growth at an early date is a first-order priority for APEC economies at the moment. We need to follow a science-based approach in pandemic response, deepen international cooperation, promote the research, development, production and fair distribution of vaccines, ensure their accessibility and affordability in developing countries, and close the immunization gap. China has announced that it would provide a total of two billion doses of vaccines to the world in the course of this year, and has so far provided over 1.7 billion doses, including donations to more than 110 countries. At the recent 16th G20 Summit, I proposed, on China's behalf, a Global Vaccine Cooperation Action Initiative. China has undertaken to offer three billion US dollars over the next three years to support COVID-19 response and economic and social recovery in fellow developing countries. China welcomes APEC initiatives to facilitate the movement of essential goods and people in a safe manner, and will continue to provide support to the Sub-Fund for APEC Cooperation on Combating COVID-19 and Economic Recovery with a view to helping member economies recover and grow the economy.

Second, foster an open Asia-Pacific economy. Openness is the lifeline of Asia-Pacific cooperation. We need to uphold open regionalism, follow the guidance of the APEC Vision 2040 in advancing regional economic integration, and work for the early realization of a high-standard Free Trade Area of the Asia-Pacific (FTAAP). We need to practice true multilateralism, stick to dialogue rather than confrontation, inclusiveness rather than exclusion, and integration rather than decoupling, and be resolute in safeguarding the multilateral trading regime with the World Trade Organization (WTO) at its core. China supports the implementation of the Enhanced APEC Agenda for Structural Reform and the APEC Services Competitiveness Roadmap. We look forward to the entry into force of the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) on schedule next year, and we have applied for joining the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP).

Third, promote innovation-driven development and the digital economy. Innovation is an important driving force that propels world development. We need to commit ourselves to innovation-driven development, harness the power of the digital economy as a new growth engine, and spread the fruits of digital technologies to more people in our region. We need to implement the APEC Internet and Digital Economy Roadmap in a full and balanced manner, and foster an open, fair, just and non-discriminatory environment for innovation and the growth of productivity. We need to further develop the digital infrastructure, speed up digital transformation, strive to bridge the digital divide, and promote development of the digital economy in an all-round way. China has put forward the initiative of Enhancing Implementation of APEC Connectivity Blueprint (2015-2025) in the Digital Era. We support stronger international cooperation on the digital economy, and have applied to join the Digital Economy Partnership Agreement (DEPA).

Fourth, pursue inclusive and sustainable development. We need to seek the harmonious coexistence between man and nature, actively respond to climate change, promote green and low-carbon transition, and foster a community of all life on Earth. China will strive to peak carbon dioxide emissions before 2030 and achieve carbon neutrality before 2060, and supports developing countries in developing green and low-carbon energies. And China will work with partner countries to advance high-quality Belt and Road cooperation. We need to fully implement the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, and let the gains of development benefit more people across the world in a more equitable way. At this year's UN General Assembly in September, I put forward a Global Development Initiative that aims at steering global development toward a new stage of balanced, coordinated and inclusive growth. The Initiative also holds great significance for sustainable development of the Asia-Pacific region. Economic and technological cooperation is an important area of APEC cooperation. We need to step up input, make sure that developing members get real benefit from such cooperation, and keep injecting new dynamism into the development and prosperity of the Asia-Pacific.

Colleagues,

This year marks the 100th anniversary of the founding of the Communist Party of China (CPC). It is the CPC's unchanging goal to deliver a better life for the over 1.4 billion Chinese people and to promote peace and development for humanity. Now, China has started a new journey toward fully building a modern socialist country. China will unswervingly expand opening-up, and share its development opportunities with APEC members and the wider world.

There is a Maori proverb in New Zealand that says, "Success is not ever that of an individual, but always that of a collective." China will work with all APEC members in building an Asia-Pacific community with a shared future and jointly opening a new chapter for Asia-Pacific economic cooperation.

Thank you.

Full Text: Keynote speech by Chinese President Xi Jinping at APEC CEO Summit

President Xi Jinping delivers a keynote speech at the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) CEO Summit via video, in Beijing, capital of China, Nov 11, 2021. [Photo/Xinhua]

Pursuing Sustainable Development in a Concerted Effort

To Build an Asia-Pacific Community with a Shared Future

Keynote Speech by H.E. Xi Jinping

President of the People's Republic of China

At the APEC CEO Summit

11 November 2021

Leaders of the Business Community,

Ladies and Gentlemen,

Dear Friends,

I am very glad to meet you again. At present, COVID-19 is still ravaging the world, and the journey to global economic recovery remains a difficult and tortuous one. The Asia-Pacific has all along been an important engine driving the global economy. Indeed, it is among the first to regain the momentum of recovery in this crisis. At this historical juncture, it is important that we in the Asia-Pacific face up to the responsibility of the times, be in the driver's seat, and strive hard to meet the goal of building an Asia-Pacific community with a shared future.

First, we need to make all-out efforts to fight COVID-19. To emerge from the shadow of the pandemic and achieve steady economic recovery at an early date is the most pressing task for us in the Asia-Pacific. At this trying time, it is all the more important that we should stay confident, keep a steady hand on the tiller, and forge ahead with determination. Over the past decades, we in the Asia-Pacific have been able to make advances by overcoming crises and achieve success by meeting challenges. In the face of this once-in-a-century test that is crucial to the future of humanity, we the Asia-Pacific economies as well as various sectors should put our people and their lives first, follow the guidance of science, pull together with solidarity, extend assistance to each other, and fight to beat the pandemic.

We should support each other in fighting COVID-19 and step up cooperation in areas such as testing methods, treatment medicine and the research, development, production and mutual recognition of vaccines to truly create synergy against COVID-19. We should translate the consensus that vaccines are a global public good into concrete actions, ensure their fair and equitable distribution as well as their accessibility and affordability in developing countries, and thus work together to close the immunization gap.

Second, we need to uphold openness and cooperation. Openness is the sure way for realizing human prosperity and progress. Over the past 30-plus years, thanks to our concerted efforts such as the adoption of the Bogor Goals and the Putrajaya Vision as well as macroeconomic policy coordination and the building of high-standard free trade areas, we in the Asia-Pacific have succeeded in sustaining fast development for a fairly long period of time. Ultimately, this has become possible because we have endeavored to create an open economic architecture and forge an Asia-Pacific partnership based on mutual trust, inclusiveness and win-win cooperation.

No matter how global developments may evolve, the Asia-Pacific economy will keep its strengths of being resilient and robust. We should all be broad-minded, follow the underlying trend of the times and proactively expand opening-up. We should advance trade and investment liberalization and facilitation, keep industrial and supply chains stable and functioning, and promote the orderly flow of resources and inputs to boost economic recovery and achieve interconnected development. We should be forward-looking, move ahead and reject practices of discrimination and exclusion of others. Attempts to draw ideological lines or form small circles on geopolitical grounds are bound to fail. The Asia-Pacific region cannot and should not relapse into the confrontation and division of the Cold War era.

Third, we need to promote green transition. A sound eco-environment is the most basic public good that benefits all. We in the Asia-Pacific should make its post-pandemic recovery a green one and take the lead in making a science-based response to climate change. We need to follow the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities and deliver on what was agreed upon in the Paris Agreement on climate change and at the 15th Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Developed economies should act on a sense of being in the same community with other economies, provide developing economies with funding and technological support and help them enhance their capacity to conduct environmental governance. Working together, all of us can embark on a path of green, low-carbon and sustainable development.

Green and low-carbon transition is a systemic project that must be pursued across the board and in a coordinated way. In the Asia-Pacific, over 100 million people still live in abject poverty. Some economies are still plagued by inadequate infrastructure development, education and health care, and they are weak in food security and energy supply. Without development, it will be impossible to pool the economic strength necessary for achieving green transition. Neglecting people's livelihood means loss of social support for pursuing green transition. We need to gain an accurate understanding of what sustainable development means, put the people first, and strike a balance between economic growth, ensuring people's well-being, and energy conservation and emissions reduction. This will enable us to catalyze green transition in the course of economic development and achieve greater development through green transition.

Fourth, we need to actively promote innovation. Innovation is an important force driving human progress. I have often stressed that a country or region cannot prosper without innovation or even with slow innovation. The Asia-Pacific has distinctive intellectual resources and a long tradition of innovation. Having created many new technologies, new industries and new mechanisms, this region of ours has always been a global pacesetter of innovation-driven development. Today, a new round of technological revolution and industrial transformation is well underway, and information technology, biotechnology and manufacturing technology are developing rapidly. This has positioned us well to promote economic growth and respond to challenges such as major diseases, climate change and natural disasters.

We need to speed up scientific and technological innovation and institutional innovation, promote the commercialization of scientific and technological advances, and foster new drivers of growth so that innovation will boost both economic development and green transition. We need to scale up cooperation between member economies of the Asia-Pacific on scientific and technological innovation, and foster an open, fair, equitable and non-discriminatory environment for the development of science and technology. The business community, standing at the forefront of scientific and technological innovation, should strive to be a major force of increasing input in research and development and applying research outcomes.

Ladies and Gentlemen,

Friends,

Over the years, China's economic development has been an integral part of the Asia-Pacific cooperation process. China has attained the goal of fully building a moderately prosperous society within the set time frame, secured a historic success in eradicating absolute poverty, and embarked on a new journey toward fully building itself into a modern socialist country. This will create greater opportunities for our region.

— China will remain firm in advancing reform and opening-up so as to add impetus to economic development in the Asia-Pacific. China is committed to building a high-standard market system and will work to make new progress in reforming important areas and key links. China will pursue high-standard institutional opening-up, continue to improve its business environment, and promote innovation-driven development of pilot free trade zones. China has ratified the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP), and it has applied for joining the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP). In the course of RCEP implementation and CPTPP negotiation, China will continue to shorten the negative list on foreign investment, promote all-round opening-up of its agricultural and manufacturing sectors, expand the opening of the service sector, and treat domestic and foreign businesses as equals in accordance with law.

As a Chinese saying goes, "To get things right at the end, one needs to lay a sound foundation; to achieve a good result, one needs to be prudent from the start." Recently, the competent Chinese government departments are improving and better enforcing anti-monopoly laws and regulations, and strengthening regulation over some sectors. This is called for to promote the sound development of the market economy in China. As a matter of fact, it is also a common practice in other countries. We will unswervingly consolidate and develop the public sector, and unswervingly encourage, support and guide the development of the non-public sector. We treat all types of market entities on an equal basis, and we are working to develop a unified, open, competitive and orderly market system. This will enable us to cement the foundation for long-term development of the Chinese economy and better support businesses from both the Asia-Pacific and the wider world in investing and operating in China.

— China will advance green transition on all fronts and make its due contribution to boosting ecological conservation in the Asia-Pacific and beyond. For many years, I used to live in a small village on the Loess Plateau, at a time when its eco-environment was undermined and its people were poverty-stricken. It had come to me that harms done to nature will eventually harm ourselves. China will actively promote ecological conservation. To us, lucid waters and lush mountains are invaluable assets. We will intensify comprehensive efforts to stem soil erosion and win the critical battle of pollution prevention and control. China will fully implement its national strategy on climate change response. Since I announced the goals of carbon peak and carbon neutrality last year, China has formulated an Action Plan for Carbon Dioxide Peaking Before 2030, and moved faster to put in place a "1+N" policy framework. Here, "1" stands for the guiding principle and top-level design for carbon peak and carbon neutrality, and "N" refers to implementation plans for key areas and industries, including the action for green energy transition, the action for peaking carbon dioxide emissions in the industrial sector, the action for promoting green and low-carbon transportation, and the action for promoting circular economy for decarbonization purposes. China will strike a balance between low-carbon transition and ensuring the living needs of its people, and between development and carbon reduction, and will achieve carbon peak and carbon neutrality within the time frame we set.

China's carbon reduction action is a profound economic and social transformation. However formidable the task may be, we will work tirelessly to make our contribution to promoting global green transition. Our carbon reduction action will also require massive investment, thus creating huge market opportunities and room for cooperation. The business communities across the Asia-Pacific are warmly welcome to join us in this endeavor. Together, we can usher in a future of green development.

— China will stay committed to promoting win-win cooperation and contribute to the economic development of the Asia-Pacific. China has all along been actively involved in regional cooperation in the Asia-Pacific, and it has endeavored to advance openness and cooperation in the region. China will continue to practice true multilateralism, uphold the WTO-centered multilateral trading system, take an active part in global economic governance and promote the building of an open world economy. China will steadfastly advance high-quality Belt and Road cooperation, facilitate connectivity in the Asia-Pacific, ensure stable and smooth functioning of industrial and supply chains in the region, and deepen cooperation with all stakeholders in such areas as e-commerce and digital logistics. With these efforts, we can inject impetus into economic recovery and sustainable development in our region.

At this year's United Nations General Assembly, I proposed a Global Development Initiative, calling for meeting the development needs of developing countries, ensuring their development opportunities and thus achieving a more robust, greener and more balanced global development. China will continue playing its role as a responsible major country. It will promote closer cooperation in areas such as global poverty reduction, food security and development financing, and earnestly implement the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, thus building a global community of development with a shared future.

Ladies and Gentlemen,

Friends,

Over the years, as business leaders, you have witnessed and participated in China's development. I hope that you will continue to take a keen interest in and support China's development, and achieve win-win in our cooperation. Working together, let us all be promoters of and contributors to unity and prosperity of the Asia-Pacific family.

Thank you all.

Full text: Xi's keynote speech at 4th CIIE opening ceremony

President Xi Jinping delivers a keynote speech via video at the opening ceremony of the fourth China International Import Expo and the Hongqiao International Economic Forum on Thursday, Nov 4, 2021. [Photo/Xinhua]

Let the Breeze of Openness Bring Warmth to the World

Keynote Speech by H.E. Xi Jinping

President of the People's Republic of China

At the Opening Ceremony of

The Fourth China International Import Expo

4 November 2021

Your Excellencies Heads of State and Government,

Your Excellencies Heads of International Organizations,

Your Excellencies Heads of Delegations,

Distinguished Guests,

Ladies and Gentlemen,

Dear Friends,

Good evening! As the fourth China International Import Expo (CIIE) opens today, it gives me great pleasure to meet you online in this cloud meeting. At the outset, I would like to extend, on behalf of the government and people of China and also in my own name, a hearty welcome to our distinguished guests and warm greetings and best wishes to our friends old and new.

China is a firm believer in honoring its words with actions. The measures I announced at the third CIIE for further opening up have mostly been implemented. The negative list for cross-border trade in services at the Hainan Free Trade Port has been introduced; reform and innovation for pilot free trade zones are making steady progress; foreign investment access continues to expand; business environment continues to improve; negotiations on the China-EU Comprehensive Agreement on Investment have been concluded; and China is among the first to have completed domestic ratification of the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP). China has overcome the impact of COVID-19 to achieve innovative growth in foreign trade. As the only major economy to register positive growth of trade in goods last year, China has made important contributions to keeping global industrial and supply chains stable and boosting world economic recovery.

Ladies and Gentlemen,

Friends,

As we speak, the world is experiencing the combined impacts of major changes and a pandemic both unseen in a century. Unilateralism and protectionism are on the rise, and economic globalization is facing headwinds. Studies show a steady decline of the World Openness Index over the past decade and a weakening of global consensus on opening up, which are causes for great concern. For a boat to sail upstream, it has to forge ahead or be driven backward. We must stay on top of the prevailing trend of economic globalization, and support countries around the world in opening up wider while rejecting unilateralism and protectionism. This is significantly important if we are to take humanity to a better future.

Opening up is the hallmark of contemporary China. This year marks the 20th anniversary of China's accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO). Over the last two decades, China has fully delivered on its accession commitments. Its overall tariff rate has been cut from 15.3 percent to 7.4 percent, lower than the 9.8 percent accession commitment. The central government has reviewed and revised over 2,300 pieces of laws and regulations, and local governments over 190,000 pieces, which all helped to unleash market and social vitality. Since the start of COVID-19, China has provided to the international community some 350 billion masks, over four billion protective suits, over six billion testing kits, and over 1.6 billion doses of vaccines. China has actively promoted international cooperation against the pandemic, and supported waiving intellectual property rights on vaccines for developing countries. These are the concrete actions China has taken to honor commitments and fulfill responsibilities.

Over the last 20 years, China's economic size has grown from the 6th to the 2nd largest in the world, trade in goods from the 6th to the 1st, and trade in services from the 11th to the 2nd. China has led developing countries in utilized foreign investment, and its outbound direct investment (ODI) has risen from the 26th to the 1st. The past 20 years have witnessed a China deepening reform and pursuing all-round opening up, a China seizing opportunities and rising to challenges, and a China stepping up to its responsibilities and benefiting the whole world.

Since joining the WTO, China has kept opening wider to the world, thus generating a new wave of domestic development while injecting fresh impetus into the world economy.

China's development and progress since its WTO accession 20 years ago is the result of much hard work and great tenacity of the Chinese people under the strong leadership of the Communist Party of China (CPC). It is also the result of China's proactive steps to strengthen international cooperation and pursue win-win cooperation.

On this occasion, I wish to express my heartfelt thanks to all Chinese and foreign friends from different social sectors for taking part in and witnessing this historic process and for supporting China's opening up and development endeavor.

Ladies and Gentlemen,

Friends,

Ancient Chinese observed, "One can tell the inside of a thing by observing its outside and see the future development by reviewing the past." For any country or nation to thrive, it must follow the logic of history and develop in line with the trend of the times. As for China, we will not change our resolve to open wider at a high standard; we will not change our determination to share development opportunities with the rest of the world; and we will not change our commitment to an economic globalization that is more open, inclusive, balanced and beneficial for all.

First, China will firmly safeguard true multilateralism. The multilateral trading regime with the WTO at its core is the cornerstone of international trade. Right now, the multilateral trading regime faces challenges. China supports the WTO reform in moving in the right direction. We support the inclusive development of the multilateral trading regime, as well as the legitimate rights and interests of the developing members. China will take an active and open attitude in negotiations on issues such as the digital economy, trade and the environment, industrial subsidies and state-owned enterprises, uphold the position of the multilateral trading regime as the main channel for international rules-setting, and safeguard the stability of global industrial and supply chains.

Second, China will firmly share market opportunities with the rest of the world. China has a population of over 1.4 billion and a middle-income group of more than 400 million people. Our annual import in goods and services is valued at around US$2.5 trillion. All this offers an enormous market. Going forward, China will lay more emphasis on expanding import, and pursue balanced development of trade. China will open more demonstration zones for creative promotion of import trade, optimize the catalogue of retail imports via cross-border e-commerce, encourage the on-site processing of imported goods from trading between border residents, and increase imports from neighboring countries. China will better integrate its domestic and foreign trade, speed up the development of international consumption center cities, promote Silk Road e-commerce, build modern logistics systems, and shore up the capacity of cross-border logistics.

Third, China will firmly promote high-standard opening up. China will further shorten the negative list for foreign investment, and expand the opening of telecommunication, healthcare and other services in an orderly fashion. China will revise and enlarge the encouraged industry catalogue to guide more foreign investment toward sectors such as advanced manufacturing, modern services, high and new technology, energy conservation and environmental protection, and toward the central, western and northeastern regions. China will conduct stress tests for high-standard opening up in pilot free trade zones and the Hainan Free Trade Port, and will release a negative list for cross-border trade in services in the pilot free trade zones. China will deeply engage in international cooperation on green and low-carbon development and the digital economy, and work actively for joining the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP) and the Digital Economy Partnership Agreement (DEPA).

Fourth, China will firmly uphold the common interests of the world. China will take an active part in cooperation within the United Nations, the WTO, the G20, APEC, Shanghai Cooperation Organization and other institutions, and promote more discussions on such issues as trade and investment, the digital economy, and green and low-carbon development. China will support the fair distribution of and unimpeded trade in vaccines and other key medical supplies across the world. China will promote high-quality Belt and Road cooperation so that more countries and peoples will benefit from its development opportunities and real outcomes. China will actively join in global efforts to tackle climate change and safeguard food and energy security, and provide more assistance to fellow developing countries within the framework of South-South cooperation.

Ladies and Gentlemen,

Friends,

As a Chinese proverb reads, "The going may be tough when one walks alone, but it gets easier when people walk together." As the pandemic continues to wreak havoc and the global economy faces a bumpy recovery, it is all the more imperative that people around the world pull together to tide over this difficult time. China stands ready to work with all countries to build an open world economy so that the spring breeze of openness will bring warmth to all parts of the world.

Thank you.

Full text: Written Statement by Xi Jinping at the COP26 World Leaders Summit

Unite for Action

To Protect the Planet, Our Shared Home

Written Statement by H.E. Xi Jinping

President of the People's Republic of China

At the World Leaders Summit?

at?the 26th session of the Conference of the Parties

to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

1 November 2021

Honourable Prime Minister Boris Johnson,

Colleagues,

It gives me great pleasure to attend the World Leaders Summit and discuss ways to address the climate challenge. As we speak, the adverse impacts of climate change have become increasingly evident, presenting a growing urgency for global action. How to respond to climate change and revive the world economy are challenges of our times that we must meet.

First, we need to uphold multilateral consensus. When it comes to global challenges such as climate change, multilateralism is the right prescription. The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change and its Paris Agreement provide the fundamental legal basis for international cooperation on climate. Parties need to build on existing consensus, increase mutual trust, step up cooperation and work together to deliver a successful COP26 in Glasgow.

Second, we need to focus on concrete actions. Visions will come true only when we act on them. Parties need to honour their commitments, set realistic targets and visions, and do their best according to national conditions to deliver their climate action measures. Developed countries should not only do more themselves, but should also provide support to help developing countries do better.

Third, we need to accelerate the green transition. It is important to harness innovations in science and technology to transform and upgrade our energy and resources sectors as well as the industrial structure and consumption pattern, promote a greener economy and society, and explore a new pathway forward that coordinates development with conservation.

Colleagues,

Guided by the vision of a community of life for man and Nature, China will continue to prioritize ecological conservation and pursue a green and low-carbon path to development. We will foster a green, low-carbon and circular economic system at a faster pace, press ahead with industrial structure adjustment, and rein in the irrational development of energy-intensive and high-emissions projects. We will speed up the transition to green and low-carbon energy, vigorously develop renewable energy, and plan and build large wind and photovoltaic power stations. Recently, China released two directives: Working Guidance for Carbon Dioxide Peaking and Carbon Neutrality in Full and Faithful Implementation of the New Development Philosophy, and the Action Plan for Carbon Dioxide Peaking Before 2030. Specific implementation plans for key areas such as energy, industry, construction and transport, and for key sectors such as coal, electricity, iron and steel, and cement will be rolled out, coupled with supporting measures in terms of science and technology, carbon sink, fiscal and taxation, and financial incentives. Taken together, these measures will form a "1+N" policy framework for delivering carbon peak and carbon neutrality, with clearly-defined timetable, roadmap and blueprint.

Ancient Chinese believe that "successful governance relies on solid action". I hope all parties will take stronger actions to jointly tackle the climate challenge and protect the planet, the shared home for us all.

Thank you.

Full text: Remarks by Xi Jinping at Session I of the 16th G20 Leaders' Summit

Acting in Solidarity for a Shared Future

Remarks by H.E. Xi Jinping
President of the People's Republic of China
At Session I of the 16th G20 Leaders' Summit

30 October 2021

Your Excellency Prime Minister Mario Draghi,
Dear Colleagues,

I wish to begin by sincerely thanking Italy, the G20 President, for the great efforts it has made in hosting this Summit.

The city of Rome, with its time-honored history, has left a splendid chapter in the history of human civilization. Today, we are meeting here against the backdrop of a protracted COVID-19 pandemic, fragile economic recovery, acute challenges of climate change, and frequent flare-ups of regional hotspot issues. With People, Planet, Prosperity as its theme, the Rome Summit gives expression to the resolve of the international community to act in solidarity to defeat the pandemic and revive the world economy, and demonstrates the mission of the G20 to lead the transformation of global economic governance.

Faced with changes and a pandemic both unseen in a century, the G20, the premier forum for international economic cooperation, needs to shoulder its due responsibilities, bear in mind the future of humanity and the welfare of the people, uphold openness, inclusiveness and win-win cooperation, practice true multilateralism, and promote the building of a community with a shared future for mankind. To be specific, I would like to suggest that we work in the following five areas.

First, work in solidarity to combat COVID-19. With the coronavirus ravaging the whole world, none of us can stay safe on our own. Solidarity and cooperation are the most powerful weapon. The international community must work in concert to confront and defeat the pandemic with a science-based approach. Stigmatization of the virus and politicization of origins tracing run counter to the spirit of solidarity against the pandemic. We need to step up cooperation on prevention, control, diagnosis and treatment, and enhance preparedness for major public health emergencies. The G20 includes the world's major economies and should therefore play a leading role in building consensus, mobilizing resources, and promoting cooperation.

At the early stage of the pandemic, I called for COVID-19 vaccines to be made a global public good. On that basis, I would like to propose here a Global Vaccine Cooperation Action Initiative: First, we need to strengthen vaccine R&D cooperation and support vaccine companies in conducting joint R&D and production with developing countries. Second, we need to uphold equity and justice, and provide more vaccines to developing countries to meet the global vaccination target for 2022 as set by the World Health Organization (WHO). Third, we need to support the World Trade Organization (WTO) in making an early decision on waiving intellectual property rights on COVID-19 vaccines, and encourage vaccine companies to transfer technology to developing countries. Fourth, we need to scale up cross-border trade cooperation to ensure smooth trade in vaccines and related raw and auxiliary materials. Fifth, we need to treat different vaccines equally and advance mutual recognition of vaccines in accordance with the WHO's Emergency Use Listing. Sixth, we need to provide financial support for global vaccine cooperation, especially for developing countries to access vaccines.

To date, China has provided over 1.6 billion doses of vaccines to more than 100 countries and international organizations, and will provide over two billion doses to the world in the course of this year. China is conducting joint vaccine production with 16 countries, with an initial capacity of 700 million doses per year. The International Forum on COVID-19 Vaccine Cooperation that I proposed last May at the Global Health Summit was held successfully in August. The participating countries reached intended deals of over 1.5 billion doses for this year. China, together with 30 other countries, has also launched an Initiative for Belt and Road Partnership on COVID-19 Vaccines Cooperation, calling on the international community to promote fair distribution of vaccines around the world. China is ready to work with all parties to enhance vaccine accessibility and affordability in developing countries and make positive contribution to building a global line of defense through vaccination.

Second, strengthen coordination to promote recovery. COVID-19 has made a complex and far-reaching impact on the world economy. It is imperative that we apply the right prescriptions to address both symptoms and root causes of the problems we face. We should step up macroeconomic policy coordination and ensure the continuity, consistency and sustainability of our policies. Major economies should adopt responsible macroeconomic policies, prevent measures taken for themselves from entailing rising inflation, exchange rate fluctuations or mounting debts, avoid negative spillovers on developing countries, and ensure sound operation of the international economic and financial system.

At the same time, we should take a long-term perspective, improve the global economic governance system and rules, and make up for the relevant governance deficit. We should continue to push for the scheduled conclusion of the 16th General Quota Review of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to buttress the global financial safety net. China supports the early launch of negotiations on the 20th replenishment process of the International Development Association, and maintains that the relevant Voting Rights Review should faithfully reflect the changes in the international economic landscape and raise the voice of developing countries. China welcomes the IMF's decision on the new allocation of Special Drawing Rights totaling 650 billion US dollars, and stands ready to lend the new allocation to low-income countries that are seriously affected by COVID-19.

We should safeguard the multilateral trading system with the WTO at its core and build an open world economy. The G20 should continue to provide political guidance on the reform of the WTO, uphold its core values and basic principles, and protect developing countries' rights, interests and development space. It is imperative to restore, as quickly as possible, the normal operation of the dispute settlement mechanism, and work for positive results at the 12th WTO Ministerial Conference. We should keep the industrial and supply chains safe and stable, and ensure the smooth functioning of the world economy. China proposes to hold an international forum on resilient and stable industrial and supply chains, and welcomes the active participation of G20 members and relevant international organizations.

Infrastructure development plays an important role in propelling economic growth. China has made unremitting efforts in this regard through Belt and Road cooperation and other initiatives. China is prepared to work with all sides to uphold the principle of extensive consultation, joint contribution and shared benefits, stay committed to the vision of open, green and clean cooperation, and pursue the goal of high-standard, people-centered and sustainable development, so as to deliver more fruitful outcomes from high-quality Belt and Road cooperation.

Third, embrace inclusiveness to achieve common development. The pandemic has brought multiple crises to the world, developing countries in particular. The number of people living in hunger has reached around 800 million. Implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development is facing unprecedented challenges. In this context, we must take a people-centered approach and make global development more equitable, effective and inclusive, so that no country will be left behind.

The G20 should prioritize development in macro policy coordination, ensure sound implementation of the Action Plan on the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, move forward with the Initiative on Supporting Industrialization in Africa and Least Developed Countries, and promote synergy among the existing mechanisms for development cooperation. Advanced economies should fulfill their pledges on official development assistance (ODA) and provide more resources for developing countries.

Not long ago, I proposed a Global Development Initiative at the United Nations and called on the international community to strengthen cooperation in areas of poverty alleviation, food security, COVID-19 response and vaccines, development financing, climate change and green development, industrialization, digital economy and connectivity, so as to accelerate implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and achieve more robust, greener and more balanced global development. This initiative is highly compatible with the G20's goal and priority of promoting global development. We welcome the active participation of more countries in the initiative.

Fourth, pursue innovation to tap growth potential. Innovation is a decisive factor in promoting economic and social development and in addressing the common challenges to humanity. The G20 should join forces to unleash the potential for innovation-driven growth and draw up rules based on extensive participation and broad-based consensus to foster an enabling environment for innovation-driven development. Forming exclusive blocs or even drawing ideological lines will only cause division and create more obstacles, which will do no good but only harm to scientific and technological innovation.

Digital economy is an important frontier of scientific and technological innovation. The G20 should shoulder responsibilities in the digital era, quicken the development of new types of digital infrastructure, promote deeper integration of digital technologies with the real economy, and help developing countries eliminate the digital divide. China has put forth the Global Initiative on Data Security. We may discuss and develop international rules for digital governance that reflect the will and respect the interests of all sides, and actively foster an open, fair, just and non-discriminatory environment for digital development. China attaches great importance to international cooperation on digital economy, and has decided to apply to join the Digital Economy Partnership Agreement. China stands ready to work with all parties for the healthy and orderly development of digital economy.

Fifth, promote harmonious co-existence to achieve green and sustainable development. The G20 needs to uphold the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities, push for the full implementation of the Paris Agreement on climate change, and support a successful COP26 to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and COP15 to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Developed countries need to lead by example on emissions reduction, fully accommodate the special difficulties and concerns of developing countries, deliver on their commitments of climate financing, and provide technology, capacity-building and other support for developing countries. This is critically important for the success of the upcoming COP26.

China has all along undertaken due international responsibilities commensurate with its national conditions. We have actively advanced the green transition of our economy, and raised the ambition of our climate actions on our own initiative. In the past ten years, China phased out 120 million kilowatts of installed coal-fired power generation capacity. The construction of the first batch of wind and photovoltaic power stations with a total installed capacity of about 100 million kilowatts was launched in an orderly fashion. China will strive to peak its CO2 emissions before 2030 and achieve carbon neutrality before 2060. We will honor our words with actions and work with all countries to pursue a path of green, low-carbon and sustainable development.

Colleagues,

As an ancient Chinese philosopher observed, "He who has credibility connects the world." In other words, credibility is the foundation for interactions with the world. China will stay committed to the fundamental state policy of opening-up to unleash the potential of its huge market and enormous domestic demand. We will promote institutional opening-up that covers rules, regulations, management and standards, and step up protection of intellectual property rights. We will continue to foster a business environment that is based on market principles, governed by law and up to international standards, and ensure a fair and equitable market order for both domestic and foreign companies. I am convinced that China's development will bring even greater and new opportunities to the world and inject still more new impetus to the world economy.

As the saying goes, Rome wasn't built in a day. To build a community with a shared future for mankind requires persisting efforts of all countries. Although the journey ahead may be long and arduous, with sustained actions, we will eventually reach our destination and embrace a brighter future. Let us work together to dispel the dark clouds of the pandemic at an early date and jointly build an ever better future for all of us!

Thank you.

Full text: Xi's speech at the conference marking the 50th Anniversary of the Restoration Of the Lawful Seat of the People's Republic of China in the United Nations

Speech by H.E. Xi Jinping

President of the People's Republic of China

At the Conference Marking the 50th Anniversary of the Restoration Of the Lawful Seat of the People's Republic of China

In the United Nations

25 October 2021

Your Excellency Secretary-General António Guterres,

Your Excellencies Diplomatic Envoys and Representatives of International Organizations,

Ladies and Gentlemen,

Friends,

Comrades,

Fifty years ago today, the 26th Session of the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted, with an overwhelming majority, Resolution 2758, and the decision was made to restore all rights of the People's Republic of China in the United Nations and to recognize the representatives of the Government of the People's Republic of China as the only legitimate representatives of China to the United Nations. It was a victory for the Chinese people and a victory for people of the world.

Today, on this special date, we are here to review the past history and look to the future, and that makes our gathering all the more significant.

The restoration of New China's lawful seat in the United Nations was a momentous event for the world and the United Nations. It came as the result of joint efforts of all peace-loving countries that stood up for justice in the world. It marked the return of the Chinese people, or one-fourth of the world's population, back to the UN stage. The importance was significant and far-reaching for both China and the wider world.

On this occasion, I wish to express, on behalf of the Chinese government and the Chinese people, heartfelt gratitude to all countries that co-sponsored and supported UN General Assembly Resolution 2758, and to pay high tribute to all countries and people that stand on the side of justice.

Ladies and Gentlemen,

Friends,

Comrades,

The past five decades since New China restored its lawful seat in the United Nations have witnessed China's peaceful development and its commitment and dedication to the welfare of all humanity.

For these 50 years, the Chinese people have demonstrated an untiring spirit and kept to the right direction of China's development amidst changing circumstances, thus writing an epic chapter in the development of China and humanity. Building on achievements in national construction and development since the founding of New China, the Chinese people have started the new historical era of reform and opening-up, and successfully initiated and developed socialism with Chinese characteristics. We have continued to unleash and develop productivity and raise living standards, and achieved a historic breakthrough of leaping from a country with relatively low productivity to the second largest economy in the world. Through much hard work, the Chinese people have attained the goal of fully building a moderately prosperous society on the vast land of China, and won the battle against poverty, thus securing a historic success in eradicating absolute poverty. We have now embarked on a new journey toward fully building a modern socialist country and opened up bright prospects for the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.

For these 50 years, the Chinese people have stood in solidarity and cooperation with people around the world and upheld international equity and justice, contributing significantly to world peace and development. The Chinese people are peace-loving people and know well the value of peace and stability. We have unswervingly followed an independent foreign policy of peace, stood firm for fairness and justice, and resolutely opposed hegemony and power politics. The Chinese people are a strong supporter of other developing countries in their just struggle to safeguard sovereignty, security and development interests. The Chinese people are committed to achieving common development. From the Tazara Railway to the Belt and Road Initiative, we have done what we could to help other developing countries, and have offered the world new opportunities through our own development. During the trying times of the COVID-19 pandemic, China has been active in sharing COVID response experience with the world, and has sent large quantities of supplies, vaccines and medicines to other countries, and deeply engaged in science-based cooperation on COVID-19 origins tracing, all in a sincere and proactive effort to contribute to humanity's final victory over the pandemic.

For these 50 years, the Chinese people have upheld the authority and sanctity of the United Nations and practiced multilateralism, and China's cooperation with the United Nations has deepened steadily. China has faithfully fulfilled its responsibility and mission as a permanent member of the UN Security Council, stayed true to the purposes and principles of the UN Charter, and upheld the central role of the United Nations in international affairs. China has stood actively for political settlement of disputes through peaceful means. It has sent over 50,000 peacekeepers to UN peacekeeping operations, and is now the second largest financial contributor to both the United Nations and UN peacekeeping operations. China has been among the first of countries to meet the UN Millennium Development Goals. It has taken the lead in implementing the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, accounting for over 70 percent of global poverty reduction. China has acted by the spirit of the UN Charter and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and earnestly applied the universality of human rights in the Chinese context. It has blazed a path of human rights development that is consistent with the trend of the times and carries distinct Chinese features, thus making major contribution to human rights progress in China and the international human rights cause.

Ladies and Gentlemen,

Friends,

Comrades,

The trend of the world, vast and mighty, prospers those who follow it and perishes those who go against it. Over the last 50 years, for all the vicissitudes in the international landscape, the world has remained stable as a whole, thanks to the concerted efforts of people of all countries. The world economy has grown rapidly, and innovation in science and technology has kept breaking new ground. A large number of developing countries have grown stronger, over a billion people have walked out of poverty, and a population of several billion are moving toward modernization.

In the world today, changes unseen in a century are accelerating, and the force for peace, development and progress has continued to grow. It falls upon us to follow the prevailing trend of history, and choose cooperation over confrontation, openness over seclusion, and mutual benefit over zero-sum games. We shall be firm in opposing all forms of hegemony and power politics, as well as all forms of unilateralism and protectionism.

We should vigorously advocate peace, development, equity, justice, democracy and freedom, which are the common values of humanity, and work together to provide the right guiding philosophy for building a better world. Peace and development are our common cause, equity and justice our common aspiration, and democracy and freedom our common pursuit. The world we live in is diverse and colorful. Diversity makes human civilization what it is, and provides a constant source of vitality and driving force for world development. As a Chinese saying goes, "Without achieving the good of one hundred various schools, the uniqueness of one individual cannot be achieved." No civilization in the world is superior to others; every civilization is special and unique to its own region. Civilizations can achieve harmony only through communication, and can make progress only through harmonization. Whether a country's path of development works is judged, first and foremost, by whether it fits the country's conditions; whether it follows the development trend of the times; whether it brings about economic growth, social advancement, better livelihoods and social stability; whether it has the people's endorsement and support; and whether it contributes to the progressive cause of humanity.

We should jointly promote the building of a community with a shared future for mankind, and work together to build an open, inclusive, clean and beautiful world that enjoys lasting peace, universal security and common prosperity. The human race is an integral community and Earth is our common homeland. No person or country can thrive in isolation. Humanity should overcome difficulties in solidarity and pursue common development in harmony. We should keep moving toward a community with a shared future for mankind, and jointly create a better future. To build a community with a shared future for mankind is not to replace one system or civilization with another. Instead, it is about countries with different social systems, ideologies, histories, cultures and levels of development coming together for shared interests, shared rights and shared responsibilities in global affairs, and creating the greatest synergy for building a better world.

We should stay committed to mutual benefit and win-win results, and work together to promote economic and social development for the greater benefit of our people. As ancient Chinese observed, "The essence of governance is livelihood; and the essence of livelihood is adequacy. Development and happy lives are the common aspirations of people in all countries. Development is meaningful only when it is for the people's interest, and can sustain only when it is motivated by the people. Countries should put their people front and center, and strive to realize development with a higher level of quality, efficiency, equity, sustainability and security. It is important to resolve the problem of unbalanced and inadequate development, and make development more balanced, coordinated and inclusive. It is also important to strengthen the people's capacity for development, foster a development environment where everyone takes part and has a share, and create a development paradigm where its outcome benefits every person in every country more directly and fairly. Not long ago, at the 76th Session of the UN General Assembly, I proposed a Global Development Initiative with the hope that countries will work together to overcome impacts of COVID-19 on global development, accelerate implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, and build a global community of development with a shared future.

We should step up cooperation, and work together to address the various challenges and global issues facing humanity. The international community is confronted by regional disputes as well as global issues such as terrorism, climate change, cybersecurity and biosecurity. Only with more inclusive global governance, more effective multilateral mechanisms and more active regional cooperation, can these issues be addressed effectively. Climate change is Nature's alarm bell to humanity. Countries need to take concrete actions to protect Mother Nature. We need to encourage green recovery, green production and green consumption, promote a civilized and healthy lifestyle, foster harmony between man and Nature, and let a sound ecology and environment be the inexhaustible source of sustainable development.

We should resolutely uphold the authority and standing of the United Nations, and work together to practice true multilateralism. Building a community with a shared future for mankind requires a strong United Nations and reform and development of the global governance system. Countries should uphold the international system with the United Nations at its core, the international order underpinned by international law and the basic norms of international relations based on the purposes and principles of the UN Charter. International rules can only be made by the 193 UN Member States together, and not decided by individual countries or blocs of countries. International rules should be observed by the 193 UN Member States, and there is and should be no exception. Countries should respect the United Nations, take good care of the UN family, refrain from exploiting the Organization, still less abandoning it at one's will, and make sure that the United Nations plays an even more positive role in advancing humanity's noble cause of peace and development. China will be happy to work with all countries under the principle of extensive consultation, joint contribution and shared benefits to explore new ideas and new models of cooperation and keep enriching the practice of multilateralism under new circumstances.

Ladies and Gentlemen,

Friends,

Comrades,

A review of the past can light the way forward. Standing at a new historical starting point, China will stay committed to the path of peaceful development and always be a builder of world peace. China will stay committed to the path of reform and opening-up and always be a contributor to global development. China will stay committed to the path of multilateralism and always be a defender of the international order.

As an ancient Chinese poem reads, "Green hills immerse in the same cloud and rain. The same moon lights up towns however far away." Let us join hands, stand on the right side of history and the side of human progress, and work tirelessly for the lasting and peaceful development of the world and for building a community with a shared future for mankind!

Thank you.

Xi's speech at 2nd UN Global Sustainable Transport Conference (Full text)

Staying Connected with the World and Abreast with the Times

And Making Big Strides on the Path of Sustainable Development

Keynote Speech by H.E. Xi Jinping

President of the People's Republic of China

At the Opening Ceremony of

The Second United Nations Global Sustainable Transport Conference

14 October 2021

Your Excellency Secretary-General António Guterres,

Dear Colleagues,

Ladies and Gentlemen,

Friends,

It gives me great pleasure to attend the second United Nations Global Sustainable Transport Conference and discuss what is important for global transport and development. Let me begin by extending, on behalf of the Chinese government and the Chinese people and also in my own name, warm congratulations on the convening of the Conference and a hearty welcome to our distinguished guests.

Transport is the artery of the economy and a bond between civilizations. A review of history shows that transport, in the forms of camel caravans and sailing boats on the ancient Silk Road, wave-breaking vessels in the Age of Exploration, and criss-cross transport networks in this modern age, has facilitated economic integration and people-to-people exchanges and turned the world into a close-knit global village.

As we speak, major changes unseen in a century, compounded by a once-in-a-century pandemic, are posing serious challenges to the global efforts of growing the economy and bettering people's lives. It is imperative that we follow the prevailing trend of world development, advance global transport cooperation, and write a new chapter featuring connectivity of infrastructure, unfettered flows of trade and investment, and interactions between civilizations.

First, we need to uphold open interplay and enhance connectivity. A big river is full when its tributaries are filled with water; and tributaries must be dry when there is no water in the big river. Only with openness, inclusiveness and connectivity can countries reinforce each other's efforts and achieve win-win results. It is important that we pursue an open world economy, reject discriminatory or exclusive rules and systems, and make economic globalization more open, inclusive, balanced and beneficial for all. We should strengthen both hard connectivity of infrastructure and soft connectivity of institutions and rules, and develop four-dimensional connectivity of land, sea, air and the Internet.

Second, we need to uphold common development and promote fairness and inclusiveness. Only when countries develop together can there be true development; only when countries prosper together can there be true prosperity. The COVID-19 pandemic has aggravated the wealth gap and widened the North-South divide. Uneven development must be addressed before broader prospects for humanity's common development could be brought about. We should leverage the enabling role of transport and increase related input in poor regions, so that local economies and people's lives could improve as a result of better roads. We should enhance North-South and South-South cooperation and scale up support for developing transport infrastructure in the least developed countries and landlocked developing countries, in an effort to achieve common prosperity.

Third, we need to uphold an innovation-driven approach and create more drivers for development. Our world is going through a new round of scientific and technological revolution and industrial transformation. Digital economy, artificial intelligence and other new technologies and new business forms have become strong technological underpinnings for economic and social development. More should be done to develop smart transport and smart logistics and promote deep integration of new technologies like big data, the Internet, artificial intelligence and blockchain with the transport sector, to ensure easier movement of people and smoother flow of goods.

Fourth, we need to uphold ecological conservation as a priority and pursue green and low-carbon development. The only durable way to achieve sustainable development is to establish an economic system for green and low-carbon development and promote green transition in all respects of economic and social development. More efforts are needed to foster a green and low-carbon way of transport, step up green infrastructural development, promote new energy, smart, digital and light-weight transport equipment, and encourage and advocate green travel, to make transport and travel more environment-friendly and low-carbon.

Fifth, we need to uphold multilateralism and improve global governance. We live in a world where the future and destiny of countries are closely linked and their interests entwined like never before. We need to follow the vision of global governance featuring extensive consultation, joint contribution and shared benefits, pool the wisdom and strength of all, and mobilize resources from across the globe to meet global challenges and promote global development. We should uphold the authority and status of the United Nations and, in the context of implementing the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, advance cooperation in such areas as poverty reduction, health, transport and logistics, and infrastructural development.

Not long ago, I proposed a Global Development Initiative, which is designed to speed up the implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, promote more robust, greener and more balanced global development, and build a global community of development with a shared future. I hope more will join the Initiative.

Ladies and Gentlemen,

Friends,

Since the founding of New China, generation after generation of the Chinese people have worked in the spirit of opening roads through mountains and putting bridges over rivers, and turned China into a country with vast transport infrastructure. Today, we are redoubling our efforts to build a country with great transport strength. Convinced that transport should come first, we have built the world's largest high-speed railway network, expressway network and world-class port clusters. We have opened air and sea routes that reach all parts of the world. We have set up an integrated transport network exceeding six million kilometers. Convinced of the need for innovation, we have achieved major breakthroughs in equipment manufacturing like high-speed trains and large aircraft. We have more than half of the world's new energy vehicles. Mega transport projects like the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge and Beijing Daxing International Airport have been completed and put into operation. Transport has become a frontier in China's modernization drive. Convinced of the importance of global connectivity, we have become the economy best connected to the global shipping network and with the highest volume of trade in goods. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the China-Europe Railway Express and ocean-going cargo vessels have been running day and night to keep global industrial and supply chains stable, showcasing China's sense of responsibility in the global community.

Ladies and Gentlemen,

Friends,

China will continue to hold high the banner of true multilateralism, and stay connected with the world and abreast with the times. This way, we will contribute more to global development while pursuing our own development.

I wish to reiterate that China will not change course in its pursuit of a new system of open economy of higher standards, and China will not waver in its resolve to promote trade and investment liberalization and facilitation. China's door of opening-up will only open wider, and will never be closed.

China will continue to advance high-quality Belt and Road cooperation, strengthen infrastructure connectivity with other countries, and develop a green Silk Road and a digital Silk Road at a faster pace. Here I announce that China will set up a Global Innovation and Knowledge Center for Sustainable Transport, as a contribution to global transport development.

Ladies and Gentlemen,

Friends,

Let us stick together on the promising path of connectivity and mutual benefit, jointly build an open, inclusive, clean and beautiful world that enjoys lasting peace, universal security and common prosperity, and promote the building of a community with a shared future for mankind.

Let me wish the Conference a full success.

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